Sapropel belongs to a variety of natural fertilizers, which consists of various humus products of the animal and plant world. These substances are deposited at the bottom of water bodies for several years. Sapropel in nature performs the function of a water purifier from impurities, it is a natural filter. The filamentous bacteria and sulfur bacteria included in the composition can remain active in dirty water with a minimum amount of oxygen.
Sapropel has a unique composition that promotes the development of plants in the soil.
The main components of the substance is lignin humus, and sapropel also includes:
- organic compounds;
- phosphorus oxide;
The amount of these components may differ depending on the reservoir and bottom composition. Boron, copper and zinc can be included in sapropel in small amounts. The formation of fertilizer is influenced by the surrounding ecosystem.
Useful properties of sapropel
Top dressing has a number of advantages over other types of fertilizers:
- versatility of the composition, can be used for any plants;
- effectiveness in an independent form, without the introduction of trace elements;
- improvement of the soil;
- improving the structure of the soil and its fertility.
Sapropel is actively used by gardeners for all plants. It can be applied under cereal plants, as well as under vegetable crops. You can also fertilize fruit trees or bushes. It is important to correctly assess the acidity of the soil before fertilizing and purchase the required brand.
How and where is sapropel obtained?
There are several ways to extract sapropel on an industrial scale.:
- using hydraulic mechanisms;
- using grabs and excavators;
- screw technique;
- point vacuum and suction;
- scraper-suction method;
- using a locking cylinder.
Special large-sized machines called dredgers are used. Lake humus is obtained in large quantities and then processed by special devices. Preliminary cleaning of stones, removal of excess moisture is required.
How to get sapropel by hand?
Sapropel can be obtained by yourself. This is done in the shallows of a wetland. To set the fertilizer, you need to take a pitchfork. They need to be modified. A special wire is put on them, from which a mesh is formed. The transverse diameter of the wire must be at least 0.2 millimeters. The sapropel does not lie at great depths, and a large amount of material can be dug out with a pitchfork with a wire. For mining, it is necessary to choose ecologically clean areas, since sapropel can absorb heavy metals and other harmful components.
You can mine sapropel using mini dredgers. This is a device, the principle of which is no different from its larger counterpart, but the scale of production is smaller. The weight of the machines ranges from 20 to 200 kg. In one day of work, you can collect sapropel on a small piece of land. The cost of sapropel obtained in this way is 10 times less than the finished purchased material in stores.
Special preparation of sapropel before use
If sapropel is mined by hand, then after raising humus and humus from the bottom of the reservoir, it is necessary to clean the material and also dry it. The action is performed in any case, but with independent mining, a sieve is needed for this to sift out excess stone scrap. Then the resulting material must be dried. This process takes the longest time intervals.
Material from the state of viscous clay and humus turns into powder. The preparation process, namely drying, is necessary to preserve the useful properties of the material. If the sapropel is not dried, it starts to rot, and the ammonia vapors in its composition kill all useful substances.
Sapropel in the natural environment exists in several forms:
The subspecies depends on the ratio of the active components of the substance.
Depending on the further processing of sapropel, such forms of fertilizer are emitted as:
- free flowing and granular;
- liquid and pasty;
- emulsified and tableted.
How to use sapropel based fertilizers?
There are several ways to use sapropel. The basic proportion for the calculation is from three to five kilograms of fertilizer per square meter of land. Sapropel is a product that can be used independently without additional mineral dressing.
The main uses are as follows:
- adding the product to the soil or compost heap with further mixing;
- adding to acidic soil to neutralize its indicators;
- a potato field will require 130 tons of fertilizer per hectare;
- if vegetables are grown on the field, then sapropel will need from 50 to 100 tons per hectare;
- the quality of the fertilizer will increase along with its efficiency when sapropel is added to other organic waste such as humus or humus;
- if you plan to grow seedlings, then the sapropel is mixed in proportions with the soil 1 to 10.
Fertilizer in any form and proportion must be added before planting under the root system. In this case, the plant will increase its growth more actively and its survival rate will improve. Sapropel can be added before every planting.
Why use sapropel as fertilizer?
Sapropel has a number of advantages, due to which the substance is chosen by gardeners and gardeners as a fertilizer. The main advantages of using the substance are as follows:
- versatility for most crops and plants;
- benefit in the form of increasing the yield of fruit trees;
- flowering plants give more voluminous forms and lush flowers;
- fertilizer promotes the growth and development of the root system.
Positive aspects of the sapropel composting process
Composting is the process of mixing sapropel with humus. Such a technique is used to improve the quality of fertilizer, rapid assimilation by the soil. It is the nitrogen-containing components of the composition that respond favorably to mixing with humus. The following scheme is used as a proportion: two parts of sapropel to one part of humus or manure. All material is laid in layers, it matures within three months.
In addition to manure and sapropel, you can add peat, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. In finished form, such fertilizers contribute to rapid growth, and all proportions of the components are observed in them. Plants will be more resistant to weather conditions.
When buying a fertilizer, you should pay attention to the sapropel brand. This material is universal, but sometimes, in terms of composition and ratio of components, it can be suitable for different crops:
- grade A – universal material for all types of soil;
- grade B – suitable for acidic environments;
- grade B – used on neutral and slightly alkaline soils.
When buying, you need to inquire about the origin of the fertilizer. It is important that the material comes from environmentally friendly regions. Sapropel should look like ash, it is the most dry black material.
People who love nature, have a special vision of the most insignificant changes in the life of plants, are able to evenly distribute physical activity, and patiently do their work, work most successfully in vegetable growing.
All these qualities are possessed by Oleg Ivanovich Pomidorkin – an active person, a graduate, a true expert in his field. But the work of a vegetable grower, like any other work in agriculture, requires, in addition to knowledge of the specifics of growing and caring for plants, physical efforts.
It is necessary to be able to loosen the soil, weed plantings, add soil, work with fertilizers, prepare vegetable seeds for sowing. Then sow them with vegetable seeders or manually, lime the soil.
At present, Oleg Ivanovich applies the knowledge accumulated over 43 years of practical activity on his site, which he has been successfully engaged in for more than 10 years.