Green fertilizer is a type of organic fertilizer that is used to increase the beneficial soil composition and fertility of garden trees and shrubs. From this type of feeding, you can prepare infusions and other liquid fertilizers for the spring and autumn periods. Green fertilizers are considered organic and safe for human health, they are easy to prepare at home.
Properties of green fertilizers
To get organic green manure quickly, you don’t need to do full composting. You can prepare infusions, that is, fertilizing in liquid form. Such substances have several advantages:
- rapid absorption by soil and its saturation;
- decrease in soil acidity;
- ease of preparation and availability of components;
- the ability to fertilize a large number of plants;
- protection of the soil from harmful substances and microorganisms.
Techniques for growing and using green fertilizer
Plant age is the main factor influencing soil effects. The younger the plant culture, the more it releases nitrogen, which is quickly released by microorganisms.
The main crop is sown one month after seeding the soil. In this case, it is important to guess with the amount of embedded mass. If you put too much, then the mass will begin to sour, and not decompose with the formation of humus. Better to put less green fertilizer, the excess of the substance will promote excessive nitrogen production, which will destroy the growth of the main plants.
If the plants for embedding in soil are older in age, they will decompose more slowly, but the amount of humus will be greater. But they are also poor in nitrogen and therefore will take it away from the soil and from the main crop of plants. Additional nitrogen fertilization may be required. Green substances must not be laid too deeply, otherwise they will not decompose, but turn into peat. On light soils, the optimum depth is 11-16 cm, on heavy soils – 5-7 cm.
Main properties of crops used as green fertilizer
The effectiveness during the application of a certain type of fertilizer can be found in the table:
|Saturation of the soil with nitrogen.||Beans.|
|Fixing nitrogen, preserving minerals in the soil.||Cereals and cruciferous crops.|
|a) during sowing until August;||Fodder beans, sunflowers, clover, lupine, oil radish, spring rape.|
|b) late sowing.||Phacelia and mustard.|
|Enhanced humus formation.||Winter crops, even wheat, are used for similar purposes.|
|Release of phosphorus in soil.||Legumes, mustard.|
|Prevents the disappearance of trace elements.||The cruciferous family, namely rapeseed and radish.|
|Aeration of the soil with sloping rhizomes of plants.||Mustard, lupine, legumes, radish.|
|Prevention of infestation by earthen larvae.||phacelia, sunflowers, legumes.|
|Attracting bees to collect honey.||Sunflowers, clover, fodder beans, phacelia.|
Using green manure in gardens
Green fertilizer in garden plots spills out between the rows of trees. Fertilizer should be left clean around the trunks. Radii of purity differ depending on the type of wood. The plant cultures that are used as fertilizer in gardens are the same as in vegetable gardens. The maximum benefit of green dressing appears two years after fertilization and lasts up to five years.
Composting is the process of converting plant residues into other substances for the synthesis of new organic compounds that resemble humus in structure. Usually any plants that have already rotted are used as compost. Alfalfa, comfrey and perennial lupine are grown separately for composting. A popular compost plant is also a sunflower that has grown to 1 meter in height.
Plant compost has the advantage of being quick to prepare. Plant material decomposes faster than peat and animal metabolic products. A complete compost can be obtained in three to four months. In the future, you can prepare infusions from it or add it to the soil in its natural form.
Stinging nettle is prized for its properties in relation to the soil. It promotes rapid plant growth, saturates green leaves with chlorophyll. The infusion will also scare away snails and other parasites. It is important to choose nettle for the preparation of fertilizer, which is not ripe to seed formation. It is not recommended to use metal utensils, due to the possible reaction of the plant with metals.
Nettle must be finely chopped, then poured with rainwater and wait for the fermentation process. For this, 1-2 weeks must pass, the infusion does not foam, it becomes dark, without an unpleasant odor. Sometimes you can add valerian infusion or a small amount of roadside dust to it. If it is necessary to water the plants with infusion at the root, it is recommended to take a solution diluted 10 times from the infusion. If you need to water the leaves of the plant, then the infusion must be diluted 20 times.
In addition to nettle, comfrey, tansy, chamomile, horsetail, shepherd’s purse can be useful for the production of infusions. Most weeds are also used for this purpose. The cooking principle is identical to the previous method. Additionally, chicken droppings, wood ash and bone meal, and onion husks can be added to the infusion.
Combined infusion of weeds and pond plants
You can make a prescription infusion using plants from water bodies. This recipe takes longer, but it essentially nourishes the soil with nutrients. To prepare the infusion, you will need such components as:
- water – 50 l;
- chopped sedge or reed, weeds – 50 liters;
- one bucket of wood ash;
- chicken droppings in the amount of 500 grams or manure – 4–5 kg;
- EM – fertilizer or “Baikal” – 1 liter.
All components are mixed and left for a week. After this time, the fertilizer will be ready for use. Additionally, you can cover the infusion with cling film and leave several holes for oxygen.
Fertilizer from grass with yeast
Sometimes grass cut alone is not enough to enrich the soil. It is not always possible to say what exactly got into the grass during germination. You can additionally enrich the green fertilizer with your own hands. For example, yeast, humates or mineral supplements are used for this.
To prepare a nutrient from herbs with yeast, the proportion of 1 kilogram of mushrooms per 10 liters of water must be observed. The yeast should be compressed, but not dry. The solution must be additionally diluted (per liter of solution – 20 liters of water). Top dressing is added to the herbal fertilizer, after which the mixture can be applied to the soil.
Siderata are plants that are used as an intermediate in soils to enrich their composition. Siderata are used by gardeners and gardeners who want to get the maximum return of nutrients from the land without depleting the soil. Before choosing a catch crop for crop rotation, that is, green manure, it is necessary to conduct a biochemical analysis of the topsoil.
The choice of crop depends on the composition of the soil and on what substances are missing. Most popular crops as siderates:
If there are problems with nitrogen in the soil, it is recommended to sow clover, alfalfa. With a lack of phosphorus, lupine is sown. The combined lack of sulfur and phosphorus becomes the reason for choosing rapeseed, mustard, and oil radish as green manures. Winter rye is able to suppress weed growth. The basic rule of effective planting of siderates is that plants cannot be planted before or after sowing related crops: for example, lupine and clover are incompatible with beans and peas, mustard with radishes. Only phacelia can be sown permanently as a green manure due to the lack of related crops.
The peculiarity of using green fertilizers is constant use throughout the year and long-term preservation of the effects. Varieties of such fertilizers contribute to year-round soil enrichment. It is important to choose the right form of green fertilizer, as well as to establish the correct crop rotation by planting siderates.
The most successful people in vegetable growing are people who love nature, have a special vision of the most insignificant changes in the life of plants, know how to evenly distribute physical activity, and patiently do their job.
All these qualities are possessed by Oleg Ivanovich Pomidorkin – an active person, a graduate, a true expert in his field. But the work of a vegetable grower, like any other work in agriculture, requires, in addition to knowledge of the specifics of growing and caring for plants, physical efforts.
It is necessary to be able to loosen the soil, weed plantings, add soil, work with fertilizers, prepare vegetable seeds for sowing. Then sow them with vegetable seeders or manually, lime the soil.
Currently, Oleg Ivanovich applies the knowledge accumulated over 43 years of practical activity on his site, which he has been successfully engaged in for more than 10 years.